Yetiştirme Torbasında (Growbag / grow slab) Domates Yetiştirmek 01 – Hazırlık

Adımlar:

  1. Prepare the materials
    insert_the_whole_dripper_to_the_growbag-sketch
  2. Every 20 cm (or less) there should be individual arrow dripper. The recommended flow rate is 1 Liter/hour or less. When the coir is pressed it is impossible to tack the arrow dripper, therefore it is important to insert all of it into the plastic bag.
  3. The quantity of water that is needed for a growbag to expand is about 70% of its final volume. For example, the quantity needed to expand 18 liters growbag(100x15x12) is about 12 liters. MINE 100x20x16cm 32 litre so I need 22 litres
  4. Calcium Nitrate Buffering
    1. During the expansion, it is very important to apply a calcium nitrate treatment. 
    2. 96 grams of  calcium nitrate
      1. http://magaza.hammaddeler.com/Karden-Kalsiyum-Nitrat-Cozeltisi-1-lt,PR-12173.html?gclid=Cj0KEQjwmKG5BRDv4YaE5t6oqf0BEiQAwqDNfDwrzX0MALiwto_VrWrqXNVA40lufHZzTtJsAdklc_EaAoxO8P8HAQ
      2. http://urun.gittigidiyor.com/ev-bahce/power-canit-1lt-kalsiyum-nitrat-cozeltisi-220334956
      3. http://www.madrasol.com/urun/hoagland-besin-kiti_1765.aspx?CatId=241 http://urun.gittigidiyor.com/ev-bahce/hoagland-besin-kiti-toprakli-topraksiz-tarimda-220302196
    3. For example: 55 growbags of 18 liters each comprise a cubic meter of expanded coir. The easiest way to apply the calcium nitrate is with the waterused for expansion. For example the quantities for 55 growbags of 18 liters are:660 liters of water and 3 kg of calcium nitrate.It is recommended to apply this treatment in a few irrigation cycles. After the full treatment (after completion of the few irrigation cycles) is given the material should be suspended for 48 hours.
    4. It is very important to neutralize the coconut fiber to avoid, in the early stages of the plant, cations that naturally contain sodium and potassium, may unbalance the nutrient solution. This process is completed very simply: 
      a. Upon expansion, introduce divalent cations from calcium (Ca2 +) and magnesium (Mg +2) to displace potassium cations (K +) and sodium (Na +), present in the coconut fiber. 
      b. Apply a mixture of 1kg of calcium nitrate (CaNO3) with 300 grams of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) per 1000 liters of water
    5. http://www.goldengrowbyprojar.com/en/consultancy/instructions-of-use-grow-bag/
  5. After 48 hours, drainage holes must be made. The holes must be made on both sides of the growbag, on the corner between the side and the bottom of the grow bag (On the edge of the growbag). Each hole must be 6-8 cm long. In total there should be at least four draining holes.draining_holes
  6. After washing is finished, the growbags must be irrigated for 4 days with a complete Fertigation formula http://www.pelemix.com/en/hydroponics-1/guidance/pre-planting
  7. To prevent nutrient lockout problems, the pH of the nutrient solution should be kept between 5.5 and 6.2. http://blog.bghydro.com/2011/10/07/the-bgh-guide-to-growing-in-coco/
  8. http://www.cocoagro.com/grow-bag-usage.html

Values in the following tables are in mg/liter (ppm).

Domates mg/litre (ppm) besin eriyiği oranları:

Cu Mn Zn Fe

Mg

Ca

K

P

N

Nutrient

Stage

Of growth

0.02 0.65 0.4 1

40

100

120

45

80-90

Planting

0.05 0.75 0.5 1.2

40

100

180

45

140

Flowering

0.05 0.75 0.55 1.2

40

120

250

45

160

Production

http://www.pelemix.com/en/hydroponics-1/guidance/growbag-irrigation

 

Sulama

Irrigation: 300-450mls/meter

Sulama günde 15 kere yapılabiliyor.

Güneş doğduktan 2 saat sonra başlayıp güneş batmadan 2-3 saat önce bitiyor.

Simple Formula for Greenhouse Crop Irrigation
Requirements
100 joules light = 300 mls Irrigation per square metre
Approximate requirements broken into
100 mls for plant growth
100 mls for Transpiration
100 mls for Drain runoff / EC regulation

 

CRITICAL THAT IRRIGATION DOES NOT SUPPLY MORE THAN 300-450 mls per square metre per application to avoid FALSE DRAIN occurringThis is equivalent to 2 L / hr drippers @ 3 per square metre applying no more than 2-3 minutes of irrigation at any one timeShorter more frequent irrigations are much better than longer intervals of larger volume

 

 

Resim: Growpot: http://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/Tomato-Grow-Bag-Pot-3-Pack_567709956.html

Tips

  • Water Root and Feeding Root: without over watering. That is why the tomato grow pot is such a clever invention; it has been designed with a watering ‘moat’ that tells you how much water to add and then limits the amount of water being soaked down to the plant’s roots. This moat provides a slow and steady water supply to the outer roots leading to best usage of water. The inner pot has a deep planting zone to which you should apply a liquid feed. This leads to the development of two root systems; one water root system and one feeding root system.
  • Keys to Successful Tomato and Cucumber Production in Perlite Media1
  • On the other hand the plant roots that obtain nutrients from humus (called feeder roots which are microscopic in size) are separate from the larger water-imbibing roots. These minute roots feed the plant only during the day when photosynthesis is active. While these roots “sleep” the plant continues to assimilate the nutrients for several hours before resting, until the next burst of sun energy awakens them. https://jimrich.wordpress.com/2010/05/03/feeding-plants-the-proper-way/
  • a nutrient reservoir,
  • http://www.simplyhydro.com/home_grow_tomatoes.htm
    • The most common method employed for large plants is the drip irrigation system. In this fully automated, re-circulating system nutrient solution is pumped from a reservoir, fed to the plants through drip emitters and allowed to drain back to the reservoir by gravity. In order to create gravity flow the grow unit must be placed higher than the nutrient reservoir. The nutrient is continuously circulated during light-on hours.
    • With both techniques the size of reservoir and pump will be determined by the number of plants. Irrigation will need adjusting as the plants grow, allow for four liters of nutrient solution per day for mature plants, smaller seedlings will consume less. The nutrient reservoir should be changed once a week. Choose a pump with a high enough gallons per hour rating to adequately reach the plants farthest from the reservoir. Emitters can become clogged with salts from the nutrient solution and should be watched closely and cleaned when necessary.
    • GIF Growth Influencing Factors
      • pH is the measure of alkalinity or acidity of the nutrient solution and is another very important GIF. If pH levels are not maintained at the appropriate level (pH 5.8 – 6.3 for tomatoes) nutrient deficiencies and toxicity will occur. Even seemingly small fluctuations in pH levels can result in inferior nutrient uptake by the plant. pH will need to be adjusted up or down based on the original reading of your water source. Potassium hydroxide will raise pH while phosphoric acid will decrease pH levels. Both products are available at your local hydroponic retail store. pH can be influenced by other factors and must be monitored regularly and adjusted as necessary.
      • Electrical conductivity (EC), measured in milliMhos, is the measure of electrical conductance of the total dissolved solutes (minerals) in the solution. The optimum EC range for tomatoes is 2.0 to 3.5 milliMhos. While EC measures the total dissolved minerals in a solution it does not identify the amounts of specific elements present. Therefore, it is easier to achieve the ideal EC using premixed 2-part hydroponic nutrient formulations than attempting to create your own formula using individual components.
  • The electrical conductivity of good quality raw water should be below 0.5 mS/cm or mmhos/cm. It is advisable to invest in a complete analysis of the water quality, including all major and minor elements, microbial contamination and pesticide residues before any further work is done. http://ag.arizona.edu/hydroponictomatoes/nutritio.htm
  • Growbag Irrigation http://www.pelemix.com/en/hydroponics-1/guidance/growbag-irrigation
    • Calcium Nitrate CaNo3 In growbags wider then 25 cm, two drip line pipes should be used
    • The quantity of water that is needed for a growbag to expand is about 70% of its final volume
    • During the expansion, it is very important to apply a calcium nitrate treatment. To every expanded cubic meter [1000 liters] of coir, 3 kg of calcium nitrate must be applied.
      For example: 55 growbags of 18 liters each comprise a cubic meter of expanded coir. The easiest way to apply the calcium nitrate is with the water
      used for expansion. For example the quantities for 55 growbags of 18 liters are: 660 liters of water and 3 kg of calcium nitrate.
      It is recommended to apply this treatment in a few irrigation cycles. After the full treatment (after completion of the few irrigation cycles) is given the material should be suspended for 48 hours.

https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:XtgIBFktrLcJ:https://www.icmag.com/ic/showthread.php%3Ft%3D241341+&cd=4&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=tr

Another thing that I’ve noticed about growing in Coco DTW with multi feeds per day is that it’s much better to feed ‘little but often’ just like how a bodybuilder or an athlete breaks their daily caloric intake into 6-8 meals a day to keep their metabolism in peak working order. Well from my experience the same applies to plants grown in coco, instead of watering your plants at a high EC/ppm once every few days, break it up into 3-5 smaller strength feeds each day and watch how your plants react but remember to have a developed root system before you use the multi-feeding. Once I start the multi-feeding I like to keep the EC at 1.3/650ppm (that’s including 0.4EC tap water), I let the run-off tell me if the plants require more or less feed. If the waste EC rises by a point or 2 then I know they are getting too much so I adjust my EC accordingly and vice versa.

 Simple Formula for Greenhouse Crop Irrigation Requirements: www.myriadint.com.au/Turkey%20Tomato%20Presentation.pdf

100 joules light = 300 mls Irrigation per square metre

Approximate requirements broken into

100 mls for plant growth

100 mls for Transpiration

100 mls for Drain runoff / EC regulation
irr

irr2
CRITICAL THAT IRRIGATION DOES NOT SUPPLY MORE THAN 300-450 mls per square metre per application to avoid FALSE DRAIN occurring

This is equivalent to 2 L / hr drippers @ 3 per square metre applying no more than 2-3 minutes of irrigation at any one time

Shorter more frequent irrigations are much better than longer intervals of larger volumes

Irrigation VOLUME should be FIXED through the day and irrigation TIMINGS should be changed to suit light levels

 
ir03
Ideal COCOPEAT volume to allow STEERING of the crop is approximately

8 -10 Litres Cocopeat per square metre of greenhouse

Ideal GROWBAG size for modern greenhouses

1 metre long x 15 cm wide x 10 cm high

(15 Litres volume) at plant density of 3 plants square metre gives 9 Litres per square metre media

Less than 8 L is insufficient in periods of hot weather hence crop will STEER to GENERATIVE actions

Greater than 10 L is too much available water volume and crop will STEER towards VEGETATIVE actions

 

In peak summer Irrigation system should be able to supply 10 Litres of irrigation per square metre per hour in irrigation applications of no more than 450mls per square metre per cycle to avoid false drain

 

To allow for maximal crop production Cocopeat requires drying during the night period to allow the oxygenation of the root zone.

-Drying of the root zone also has the effective of producing plant hormones in the crop to STEER the growth in the growers desired direction.

COCOPEAT

Drying 8-10 % at night STEERS GENERATIVE

Drying Less than 6 % at night STEERS VEGATIVELY

 

Knowing the moisture content of the growbag is critical to STEERthe crop and knowing when to start and stop irrigation each day.

Moisture Content can measured Automatically or Manually using either

1)Scales to measure the weight of the water changes in the growbag

2)Electronic meters to measure water content directly

 

Irrigation start time should be approximately 1-2 hours after sunrise to allow the crop to WAKEUP and start to absorb water from the growbag

-Measuring water content allows the grower to see when the crop is ACTIVE and the first irrigation should be applied

-If irrigation is applied to early excessive ROOT PRESURE may force water into the fruit and SPLIT fruit may result

-The LAST irrigation of the DAY should be timed to allow sufficient drying time of the COCOPEAT overnight. This last irrigation may occur 2-3 hours before SUNSET to give the active crop time to reduce the Water Content in the growbag.

 

To keep the rootzone at the IDEAL EC level for desired STEERING of growth the EC must be monitored regularly

-The DRAIN EC is critical to be known so effective irrigation cycles can be scheduled.

-If the DRAIN EC is HIGH more frequent irrigationsshould be given to slowly bring it back into range

-If the DRAIN EC is LOW less irrigationsshould be given to bring it back into range

-THE APPLICATION OF LOW EC or WATER ALONE through the irrigation should never be given to reduce the EC and this will cause the plant to take up large volume of water and fruit quality will be greatly reduced with symptoms of SOFT fruit

-If the EC in the DRAIN needs to be altered more than 0.5 dsm it should be gradually done over a period 1-2 days so the plant is not shocked by the changes in the root zone.

 

 

Nutrition Management

For Tomatoes it is NOT necessary to have growbags pre buffer treated provide a reputable company with good quality cocopeat is being sourced

-Complete nutrient solution at Hydration is acceptable to buffer the bags

-Trace elements should be in CHELATE form i.e. EDTA where possible top ensure full availability in the root zone

-This is particularly important for COPPER which is degraded whenCopper Sulfate in used both in the Nutrient Tanks and in the Growing Media

-Nutrient Tanks should be kept at a pH level of less than 5.5 to ensure full nutrient availability when used.

-If runoff water coming from the growbags is greater than 5.8 pH units then Iron DPTA should be used in preference to Iron EDTA

-If pH is fluctuating then a combination of the two Iron Chelate forms should be used

-If EC raised NEVER flush with WATER as this will decrease crop yield. Use greater irrigation frequency to lower the EC of the rootzone

A maximum of no more than 3 leaves per plant should be removed at any one week as greater removal will place great stress on the plantand fruit size and yield will suffer

http://www.wikihow.com/Use-Cocopeat-Grow-Slabs-for-Hydroponics-Growing

http://hortamericas.blogspot.com.tr/2015/07/buffering-coir-not-necessary-if-its.html

Using Cocopeat

Instructions for the use of coco coir Performa Globalys

Setting up bags of culture in greenhouses

as2

 Inflation and calcium saturation

The coco are low in calcium. They will therefore fix the calcium in the first input and create deficiencies at the plant for fertilization if calcium saturation is not done before planting. To find a balance and a good nutritional environment for roots, we must take the following 4 steps for the filling:

  1.  Irrigate the dry slab with a solution of calcium nitrate of a salinity of 2.5 to 3 mS (1 g Calcium nitrate per litre of water is equivalent to 1.2 ms) The pH should also be adjusted around 5.8 pH. It is also possible to use a complete nutrient solution.
  2.  Provide water for 60% of the total volume of substrate (eg. a coil that contain 22.1 litres of substrate must be wet with roughly 13.26 litres of water). The water volumes per shot should be around 250 ml / emitter (1 emitter per plant) at intervals of 1 hour (even at 2 hours during the last watering shots). It is important to let the substrate incorporate the water before re-watering to prevent the structure from being damaged. In the case of over-watering, the thin fibbers would accumulate in the down-part of the substrate which would tend to loose its porosity. We must therefore avoid creating a balloon of water in the sides of the bags.
  3.  A well inflated slab will have “sharp” edges and be square. There will be no more free space in  the bag. At this point you are ready to cut out the drainage slots. It is suggested to cut 2 slots for drainage at the bottom of the bag (4 cm on the lower edge and 4 cm on the bottom of the bag);  one on each side of the length. Eventually, it will be interesting to add some slots for the end of the culture to create a substrate more drainable, and therefore more reproductive.
  4.  To control the salt content of the substrate, salinity of the liquid leaving the bag (the drainage solution) must be measured. Ideally the tomato plants must be deposited in a substrate with a salinity of 3 to 4 mS. The cucumbers must be deposited in a substrate with a salinity of 2 to 3 mS. The strawberry plants must be deposited in a substrate with a salinity of 1 to 1.2 mS. If salinity is higher, it is necessary to make additional irrigation with water or low conductivity complete solution to reduce it to the desired target. The pH must also be controlled and be between 5.5 and 6.2 pH.

3- Plantation watering

In coir, watering at the plantation is critical and requires close monitoring to promote root colonisation. At plantation, the plants should have been previously well irrigated. Be ready to irrigate 20 minutes after the first plant has been deposited on the substrate. Any delay will cause dehydration of the roots and in some cases the complete destruction of the root system.

Ideally, you should use a propagation block of coir or Rockwool. If no coir propagation blocks are available, Rockwool blocs works fine with coconut. However, it is an inert substrate much more porous than coconut. You can expect the coconut slab to literally drink the water contents of the Rockwool and that the plant will require irrigation fairly quickly in order to prevent water stress to the plant. We must therefore ensure a balanced pH and salinity in the propagation slab and in the irrigation solution before depositing them on the coconut slabs.

Sulama Sıklığı Takvimi

Watering schedule for maximum root zone colonisation
 

Stade

 

Irrigation start time (hours after the sun dawn)

 

Irrigation stop time (hours before the sun dusk)

Interval between irrigations  

Night irigation every

Transplantation 1 hr 1hr 20 minutes 3 h
Roots fixed to the top of the coir slab  

1 hr

 

1 hr

 

40 minutes

 

4 h

Roots at 1 cm deep in the coir slab  

2 hr

 

2 hr

 

1 h

 

1 shot

Roots at 3 cm deep in the coir slab  

2 hr

 

2 hr

 

1 hr

 

0

Roots at mid height of the coir slab  

3 hr

 

3 hr

 

2 hr

 

0

It is very important to go see how the roots are migrating inside the coir slab and not just on the outskirts. The roots in the periphery are the first to grow but it is important to ensure that the roots in the middle of the slab are also following a penetration growth pattern to have sufficient root system development to ensure a good supply
of water in hot and sunny seasons. The intervals between watering should be increased in case of bad weather. The intervals between watering should be decreased (more irrigation per hour) in case of hot weather or tropical climate.

4 – Management of watering during production

The volume of each watering shot during production should be around 100 to 200 ml. Proper management of water supply and leaching (drainage) in terms of volume, salinity and pH are simple to achieve in Performa Globalys coco coir.
EC targets generally ranges from 1.2 to 3 mS in the watering solution for tomato, form 1 to 2 mS for cucumbers and from 0.8 to 1.8 for strawberries. For EC and pH targets adjusted to your crop, please refer to your agronomic consultant. The targets in the slabs (drainage water) should never be more then 1 to 1.5 mS higher then the feed solution. To maintain the balance of the substrate during sunny days, the rule of thumb is to generate 20% leaching for a high volume of substrate (> 6 l. coconut / plant) and up to 40% of leaching for a low volume of substrate (<4 l. coconut / plant). The use of a tensiometer (water tension reading) or a humidity sensor to monitor the roots zone water content is ideal for the management of irrigation.

Methods

 

  • Remove Side Shoots
  • Seperate Feeding vs. Watering?

 

Ekipman

  • Slow release fertilizer / Kontrollü Salınımlı GÜBRE
  • Perlit Torbası http://keskinplastik.com/?p=97

 

 

Çeşitli Videolar:

Malzemeler:

http://www.e-tartes.com/

http://www.bahcedeyiz.com/Search.php?a=topraks%FDz&x=0&y=0

http://www.yesilcozum.com/hindistan-cevizi-kabuu-torba-cocopeat-151004094437

http://www.smoothgarden.com/?kategori-2-hidroponik

http://www.growkent.com/Smart-Pot-Kumas-Saksi,PR-716.html

Sorular

Nelerin EC level’ına bakıyorum?

  • EV level of coir http://hortamericas.blogspot.com.tr/2015/07/buffering-coir-not-necessary-if-its.html

Nelerin PH level ına bakıyorum?

Arduino & Hydroponics

https://hackaday.io/project/7008-fly-wars-a-hackers-solution-to-world-hunger/log/24646-three-dollar-ec-ppm-meter-arduino

 

ISsues

Leaching should be done at every reservoir change to avoid encountering problems. This will rid the growing medium and root zone of toxic salt build up. To leach, rince the root zone with straight pH balanced water. Use twice as much liquid as the hydroponic container would have held when empty.

  • Check the colour of the leaves; yellow leaves may indicate that the nutrient solution isn’t strong enough or pH is too high, locking out nitrogen – leach and change the solution.
  • Leaf tips curl up or red stem may indicate a magnesium deficiency caused by too low a pH – leach and change solution
  • Leaf tips curling under may mean the nutrient level is too high – add pH 6.0 water
  • A potassium deficiency my cause flowers to fall off before setting fruit – leach and change solution.

Blossom-end-rot caused by too much water puddling in the root zone will create a calcium deficiency – leach and foliar spray with a calcium nitrate solution.

HOAGLAND BESİN ERİYİĞİ KİTİ

Siparişinizi teslim aldığınızda 6 adet farklı pakette gübreler göreceksiniz.Ayrı ayrı 6 adet bir litrelik su hazırlayın ve her paketi bu 1 litrelik sulara ayrı ayrı dökerek hepsini iyice karıştırınız.

Ana besinimizi hazırlayacağımız 985 cc içme suyu hazırlayın.Bu suya yukarıda hazırladığınız elementlerden aşağıdaki oranlarda verin.

Bütün elementlerden suya ilave ettiğiniz zaman suyun hacmi 1 lt (1000cc) olacaktır.

Mono Potasyum Fosfat (KH2PO4) 1.0 ml
Potasyum Nitrat (KNO3) 5.0 ml
Kalsiyum Nitrat [Ca(NO3)2•4H2O] 5.0 ml
Magnezyum Sülfat (MgSO4•7H2O) 2.0 ml
İz element solüsyonundan 1.0 ml
Demir 1.0 ml

Kullanım Şekli :

En eğlenceli kısmı kullanımı, çünkü bu solüsyonu hangi bitkiye verseniz 1 hafta içerisinde inanılmaz farklılıklar görülüyor. Afrika menekşesinden tutunda maydonoza, domatese aklınıza gelebilecek tüm bitkilere başarıyla uygulanabiliyor. Uygulamada dikkat edilecek husus pH ayarı ve Ec olarak adlandırılan tuzluluk değeri. Bu değerler bitkiden bitkiye farklılık gösteriyor. Örneğin domates 6-6,5 pH aralığında 1400- 3500 mg/litre tuzluluk değerlerinde beslenirken, afrika menekşesi pH 6-7 840-1050 mg/litre aralığında beslenmesi gerekiyor.

Not: Stok çözeltilerde saf su,yağmur suyu veya kaynak suyu kullanılması çözeltilerin ömrünü uzatırken, elementlerin bozulmadan kalmasına yardımcı olmaktadır.

Kaynak:
Hoagland, D.R. and Arnon, D.I., 1950, The Water Culture Method for Growing
Plants Without Soil, Circular 347, California Agricultural Experiment Station, University of
California, Berkeley, CA.
en.wikipedia*org/wiki/Hoagland_solution

yağmur suyu ph ı : 8.11
ppm:50 – 101us/cm

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